classroom strategies for knowledge transformation
ining adults as learners in the college classroom. Reprinted with permission. Not surprisingly, this “transformation” has serious implications for us in the space of education. Mezirow, Jack. [ITAL:] New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 1997, no. Transformative learning theory also recognizes that changing one's perspective is not simply a rational process. Next, have students discuss the question with their partner and share their ideas and/or contrasting opinions (3 min). Students have successfully used their current paradigms to excel in school and understand the world. Understand the logical connections between ideas. Instructors tend to use one of two instructional orientations: Transmission: Where "the teacher's role is to prepare and transmit information to learners" and "the learners' role is to receive, store, and act upon this information." When a teacher implements a combination of effective teaching strategies, their students have more opportunities to perform better in class. Finally, suggestions are offered for effectively aiding adult learners, whether in a college classroom or student service program. 1. * Create a disorienting dilemma. In the sciences and mathematics, it is common for students to have learned an oversimplified definition or approach in high school. Students must have their beliefs and assumptions actively challenged. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991. Resistance to perspective transformation is common, even among students who are motivated to learn (Illeris, 2003). Informational text is full of just that, information. Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students. They need to be interested in what they're teaching and encourage class discussions. * Provide conflicting viewpoints. A. lgebra is often the first mathematics subject that requires extensive abstract thinking, a chal-lenging new skill for many students. Transformative learning is in clear contrast to the more common process of assimilative learning, the type of learning that takes place when students simply acquire new information that can easily fit into their pre-existing knowledge structures. * Ask students to create a "perspective history" timeline. Failure-driven approaches to teaching recognize that students are most motivated to learn when their current knowledge is insufficient to solve an interesting problem. The activating event can be anything that triggers students to examine their thinking and the possible limitations of their understanding: * Understand your students' backgrounds. Give students a challenging question or problem and have them talk through the thought process. Transformative learning theory (see Mezirow, 1997) addresses this common teaching challenge. So how do they do that? Together, these characteristics persuade students to believe that learning the content and skills really matters. The knowledge within your company is always growing and evolving, and your knowledge transfer plan needs to reflect that. You can assign different approaches/perspectives to specific students and discuss the varying outcomes in class, or you can ask students to tackle the same assignment more than once. Bring dull academic concepts to life with visual and practical learning experiences, helping your students to understand how their schooling applies in the real-world.Examples include using the interactive whiteboard to display photos, audio clips and videos, as well as encouraging your students to get out of their seats with classroom experiments and local field trips. 93, 63-71. Critical reflection is likely to occur outside of the classroom, as the student absorbs and integrates what happened in the classroom. An ideal classroom companion for business schools, the authors use their extensive knowledge to show how corporate strategy can imbibe and thrive by adopting vibrant e … [ITAL:] New Directions of Adult and Continuing Education, 2002, no. Students must not only acquire new skills and information, but also radically transform their approach to thinking and learning. The key to transformational teaching is not reacting, but rather a grinding obsession with analysis and preparation. Identify, construct, and evaluate arguments. Both newcomers and veterans are always looking for ways to make their classrooms more effective and welcoming for all students. finally, making choices or otherwise acting upon these new understandings. This will challenge students' thinking habits and bring to the discussion points that might not otherwise have been raised. In contrast to immature teachers who fill a 90-minute class with activities (and ignore targeted objectives), a transformational teacher treats those 90 minutes like a carefully crafted persuasive essay -- with a clear purpose and unique sense of style, a memorable beginning and end, a logical sequence, important content, nimble transitions, and contagious passion. When these processes occur, students are more likely to revise their underlying assumptions, adopt a new paradigm, and apply this new paradigm (Cranton, 2002). Throw in close reading strategies, and you’ve entered the Humdrum House. Provide a set of semi-structured questions to guide their reflection. * Create classroom exercises, such as role-playing or debates, that give students the opportunity to try on new perspectives. Someone with symphony thinking skills is able to do the following: Nobody said this stuff was easy. "Transformative Learning: Theory to Practice." Then allow the students form groups of 2-3 people. These themes appear in a survey conducted by Grant Wiggins, in which high school students were asked to complete this phrase: "I learn best when the teacher . You can lead the discussion yourself or break the class into small groups for analysis or discussion. Columbus: OH: ERIC, 1998. moments (when they suddenly understood a new concept or viewpoint), as well as conflict and confusion. Whereas some college-level courses are aimed at assimilative learning, most courses require at least some level of transformative learning. * Ask students to evaluate a specific position, solution, or reading and justify their critique. Writes Richard Bankert, an eighth grade science teacher, "The best teachers are artists who know the science of teaching.". As classrooms become more diverse, teachers have to develop strategies for classroom management that honor and respect students from various cultures and backgrounds. The best strategies for helping students identify their current assumptions all require that students explain their thinking: * Use a critical questioning technique. You can invite a student to play devil's advocate--challenging everyone's assumptions--or you can play the role yourself. Everyone has their own “style” for collecting and organizing information into useful knowledge, and the online environment can be particularly well suited to some learning styles and personality needs. Once you have a knowledge sharing platform in place, empower employees to use it to its full potential. It's hard not to rescue kids when they beg for help. Says child psychologist Dr. David Elkind, "The art comes from the teacher's personality, experience, and talents. According to transformative learning theory, paradigm shift/perspective transformation is the result of several conditions and processes: 1. an activating event that exposes the limitations of a student's current knowledge/approach; 2. opportunities for the student to identify and articulate the underlying assumptions in the student's current knowledge/approach; 3. critical self-reflection as the student considers where these underlying assumptions came from, how these assumptions influenced or limited understanding; 4. critical discourse with other students and the instructor as the group examines alternative ideas and approaches; 5. opportunities to test and apply new perspectives. Allowing productive struggle to occur, using artistic and scientific instruction, modeling symphonic thinking, and encouraging students to lean into constructivist problem solving can lead to the holy grail of transformational teaching: epiphany. For example, rather than reading about the census, students in constructivist classrooms exam- ine and interpret census data. Warning: allowing productive struggle to occur consumes more class time. Specifically, challenge what students believe. Mezirow, Jack. * Keep the conversations going outside of the classroom. In addition to basic classroom interactions, anonymous pre-tests, surveys, and early graded or non-graded assignments can all be effective tools. Use this list of 107 instructional strategies to fill-in that lesson plan or teaching portfolio with some high quality teaching strategies.Or, try some of these strategies out when you’re low on ideas and looking for a fresh way to teach in the classroom! In the humanities, students may, for the first time, be asked to develop original interpretations of texts or to consider conflicting interpretations of texts instead of seeking the one, instructor-approved, "correct" interpretation. ." The science comes from knowledge of child development and the structure of the curriculum." Ask many students how they feel about close reading informational text, and they’ll tell you it’s a bore. * Make time during class for more extended periods of discussion and debate. Electrical engineering students read about circuitry and electricity in an introductory course. 22, 396-406. Transformational learning is both a social and solitary process (Taylor, 1998). What people and events shaped their assumptions? CBE–Life Sciences Education, 11(2), 113–120. Below, we consider strategies for each process involved in transformative learning and offer examples of what Stanford faculty members are doing to bring these strategies into their classrooms. Find out how teachers can help your child in the classroom. The learning classroom: Theory into practice. For example, transformative learning is unlikely to occur when you allow students to use discussion to reinforce their existing perspectives or to persuade others of their viewpoint. Let's break it down. What is required is a true transformation of students' existing knowledge. © Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305. "Transformative Education. Pay in 3 installments Create opportunities for students to reflect through conversation: * When you introduce a new strategy, concept, or paradigm in class, ask students to analyze the approach and compare it with their previous assumptions.
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